Friday, July 20, 2012

Everything Edible Landscaping Business Plan

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Business Plan

Jonathan Brian Francoeur (on Facebook)

back cover
Table of Contents
1  Executive Summary 3
1.1  Objectives 3
1.2  Business history / Nature of operations 3
1.3  Products and Services 3
1.4  Project Financing 3
1.5  Management / Advisers 4
1.6  Risk Assessment & Contingency Plan 4
1.7  Financial Institution 4
2  Business Concept 5
2.1  Description of the industry 5
2.1.1  Industry Outlooks and Growth Potential 5
2.1.2  Markets and Customers 6
2.2  Description of the Business Venture 7
2.3  Major players (suppliers, distributors, clients) 7
2.4  Government  and other regulations 7
2.5  Products & services 9
2.6  Pricing and distribution 10
2.7  Market trends 10
2.8  Implications or risk factors 10
2.9  Planned Response 11
2.10  Competitive Businesses 11
2.11  Competitive advantage 12
2.12  Action Plan 12
3  Sales & Marketing Plan 14
3.1  Marketing niche (Customer) 14
3.1.1  Customer Case History 14
3.2  Advertising & promotion 14
3.3  Pricing & distribution 15
3.4  Customer service policy 16
4  Operations 17
4.1  Location 17
4.1.1  Size and capacity 18
4.1.2  Advantages or disadvantages 18
4.1.3  Lease or ownership detail 18
4.2  Equipment, supplies and materials 18
4.3  Research & Development 18
4.4  environmental compliance 19
4.5  Additional information 19
4.6  Key roles [include job tasks of employees and volunteers] 19
4.6.1  Additional information 19
4.7  Policies & Procedures 19
4.7.1  Hours of operations 20
4.7.2  Number of employees 20
4.7.3  Vacation program 20
4.7.4  Performance assessment 20
4.7.5  Training and development 20
4.7.6  Remuneration and benefits 20
4.8  Additional information 21
5  Financial Plan 22
6  Appendix 23
6.1  Nurseries 23
6.2  Competitors/ Allies 23
6.3  Network 24
6.4  Performance Questionnaire 24
6.5  Site Requirements 24
6.6  Resources 25
6.7  Resume 27
6.8  Income and Expenses since startup 28

1  Executive Summary

1.1  Objectives
Our goal is to:
1)   Improve soil and watershed conditions by cultivating perennial edible polycultures.
2)   Establish a food system that can supply us with enough perennial food crops to feed 100% of our population year 'round.
3)   Train enough edible landscapers to take care of those landscapes.
1.2  Business history / Nature of operations
Everything Edible started operation in May of 2007 under the title “The Army of Farmers”.  It was run by Jonathan Francoeur for individual home owners and a farmer.  The homeowners were mostly all semi retired women with interest in food production.  Other landscapers who focus on edibles told methat that only 25% of their work was edible and the other 75% was ornamental, carpentry, stone work, ponds etc... because there was not enough demand.  I decided to specialize in edible landscaping 100% and create the demand necessary to keep me working full time through work trades on farms and other arrangements.  In 2008 A trailer was purchased and the business title changed to “The Family of Farmers”.  While income from paying clients remained relatively constant and low, food production drastically improved with the work-trade situation and living costs were drastically reduced.  This business model continued for 3 years until it became evident that for the interests of the business a permanent location was desirable for the cultivation of nursery stock.
Today the business is focused on finding landowners that understand that the best stocks to buy with their dollars are nut and fruit tree root stocks, seedlings and seeds.
The knowledge that I have gathered from my experiences makes me the best person for the job of realizing Everything Edible Landscaping and creating a business model that will create a long lasting positive change to our environment, our local economy and our social sphere.
1.3  Products and Services
Everything Edible landscaping is selling: plants, consultations, designs, installations and maintenance of landscapes consisting of attractively and practically arranged food producing plants.
1.4  Project Financing
Gross earnings from January 1st 2007 to April 1st 2011 were $24,913.33.  Sales and administration expenses were $17407.73.  There were no wages paid to any employees however my personal spending (costs of living) $10,846 could be considered a wage.  This means that the business ran a deficit of $3340.4 over 4 years.  This deficit was subsidized by myself with gifted family money from before startup.  The top three largest expenses have been food, rent and education.  Long term land access is now paramount to reducing food costs and providing longterm research grounds so that expenses on education can be cut.
Conservative (1-5%), moderate (7-15%) and progressive (20-50%+) growth rates, so you can anticipate needs for each scenario.

.  A network of several [ estimate range and volume. e.g. ...5 priv and 5 commercial at an average of $___ ] private and commercial clients will be necessary for fast growth. [be specific in the exec summary...revenue growth of __% over ___ years. $___ in operation and promotional financing will be required over ___ years to achieve this goal]Fibonnacci series says 161% is natural growth [that would be a very healthy return in the business world...need lots of fertilizer. You might start with different guesses or calculations for different scenarios...e.g. conservative (1-5%), moderate (7-15%) and progressive (20-50%+) growth rates, so you can anticipate needs for each scenario. Growth will depend on the latent demand or effectiveness of your marketing, and your ability to increase production & services.  --Dan].  See Finances in the appendix.
1.5  Management / Advisers
Jonathan Francoeur.
Education:  BUS 110 Introduction to Business; 2002, Certified Horticultural Landscaper and Compost Educator since 2006, Permaculture designer and Sustainable gardener since 2008 and Organic Master Gardener since 2010.
Experienced in food production and business management since 2004.  See resume.
1.6  Risk Assessment & Contingency Plan
I am hopeful that the market for this business will disappear in my lifetime due to it's own successes.  In the event that locally available resilient food systems that are environmentally sustainable become produced on a scale that brings down the demand for Everything Edible Landscaping, the business can continue using the barter system to cover land access expenses.  Ultimately if no trade for land access is negotiable the company will move to another geographic area.
1.7  Financial Institution
Name: VanCity Branch: 42 Transit number: 132  07220 809
Address: 3075 Douglas Street City: Victoria
Province: British Columbia Postal Code: V8T 4N3
Opening Balance on July 16th 2007: $1,601.80
Balance as of  September 13th 2011: $19306.90
2  Business Concept
2.1  Description of the industry
The edible landscaping industry is a blend of the organic food industry and the landscaping industry.  The industry caters to people who want control and confidence about how their food is grown and can afford to hire a professional to manage their landscapes.
Here are businesses from the top 100 Google search results for “Edible Landscaping”.
2.1.1  Industry Outlooks and Growth Potential
The Edible Landscaping industry has a lot of potential to grow which parallels the growing movement towards organic foods and the well established landscaping industry in the CRD.
Victoria is also called “The city of gardens” because landscaping is so popular here.  “The sale of lawn and garden products, equipment and plants from large retailers rose by more than $600 million from 2002 to 2006, reaching over $2 billion1”  This means that the landscaping industry has been growing a lot, 30% in only four years.
Also, “BC's organic sector is experiencing phenomenal expansion, with double digit annual growth in production and retail sales over the past decade.”  Not only that, but this industry is in it's infancy with lots of room to grow as only 1.5% percent of farms in Canada are Certified Organic2.
Given the production technology available today, over half a hectare of farmland (0.524 ha) is needed to produce the food for one person for one year3. 0.524 ha = 1.29 acres = 5240 square meters.
All of the land in the CRD could meet 135% of our need for food.  However, the areas designated ALR (could only meet 5.83%.  If an average lot is 500 square meters, the average house has a foot print of 150 square meters and 25% of the total surface area in the Rural Urban Containment and Servicing Policy Area is roads.  Then there would be 11083 arable ha in the RUSCPA.  That area could supply 6.13% of our food needs.  That's more than the ALR! (see chart “Percent of food needs that could be met on our land”.)4
To meet our food needs locally we will need to grow food in areas that are not designated for growing food.  This can only be done by creating landscapes that are multi-functional.
2.1.2  Markets and Customers
The population of the Capital Region is about 345,0005.  40% of those people are over 50 years of age.  165,386 people own their homes, that's 48%.  The target market is in or nearing retirement after working full time with a university degree education.  There are 69,250 people in the CRD with a University certificate, diploma or degree6 The number of  residents of Saanich, Victoria and Oak Bay who are over 50, own their houses and have a University certificate, diploma or degree could be around 11,253 and are most likely a lot more since people with a university level degree and who are over 50 are more likely to be home owners that the majority of the population.
Particularly in commercial, government sites and the residential areas where families have university level educations and are in or nearing retirement such as Royal Oak where I've observed that most properties are maintained by landscapers.
The health conscious and financially secure segment is the most important for edible landscaping and ideally, one day we will all fit that description.
Gardening is the 2nd most popular physical activity for men and 3rd for women7.   Due to the long time commitment to their work, clients who have been working full time until retirement will have less knowledge about edible landscapes and will therefor benefit from the experience of a trained professional.  The average Canadian spends 10% of their budget on food.  From 2002 to 2006 the number of farms reporting organic crops has risen by over 50%8.
Most people in the CRD are currently working in services9 and live in Saanich or Victoria10.  The largest segment of the population are in their mid 50's11, have University level degrees12 and are from the British isles13.  In 5 years this group will have reached the age of retirement.  The services of Everything Edible Landscaping fit well into this demographic as retirees will have more time to appreciate their landscapes and they will most likely be wealthy enough to afford professional help.  In the past, the vast majority of clients have been middle class, retired or semi retired home owners from British descent living in urban areas and I believe that in the future this will most likely also be the case.
2.2  Description of the Business Venture
Everything Edible Landscaping educates about, designs, installs and maintains beautiful landscapes  that produce food and build soil quality all year.
2.3  Major players (suppliers, distributors, clients)
There are many 2nd hand stores that have supplied most tools as well as garage sales.  It is an important ethic to source used goods when finding tools that will one day be destined to be land filled.  Mail order catalogs, smaller growers (ie: Geoff Johnson) and different clients can also supply plants for sale.  Wild-crafting, seed saving and propagation from cuttings is the ideal way to meet our plant needs.
2.4  Government  and other regulations
(Where do I get these answers?[I would search the Internet using general key words and on the relevant govt websites to identify general issues, and then narrow searches using specific keywords you find, search on the web, specific sites and follow links to resources or other related sites. Talk to others in this business to see what they have learned. Then contact the authorities for the specific province, region or municipality you are interested in, e.g. Saanich, Central Saanich, CRD. For example I searched on: business regulations for farming in BC. Not all these links fit in the “govt” section ..---Dan])I think the following would be relevant here: zoning regulations re agricultural use of land (ALR vs restrictions on urban farming), official community plans, pesticide bylaws, organic guidelines, watering restrictions, health bylaws regarding sale of plants as food, soil transportation restrictions, tax breaks for farming...--Dan]
Zoning regulations in regards to agricultural use of land:
Urban Farming:
Official Community Plans:
Pesticide Bylaws:  Jonathan Francoeur has a pesticide applicators license and is aware of the regulations around their use for commercial purposes.
Organic Guidelines:  For clients wishing to have organic certification, Everything Edible supports the local certifying body Certified Organic Agriculture British Columbia (COABC)14.
Watering Restrictions:
Health bylaws regarding sale of plants as food:
soil transportation restrictions:
Tax breaks for farming:
Below is a comprehensive list of the permits that could be required for operations withing the CRD:
Municipal Permits (42)
Tree Preservation Permit (Victoria) , Street Occupancy Permit (Victoria) , Board of Variance Permit (Victoria) , Electrical Permit (Victoria) , Excavation Permit (Victoria) , Building Permit- Commercial Industrial and Multi Residential (Saanich) , Commercial Vehicle Licence Decal (Saanich) , Tree Permit (Saanich) , Construction Permit (North Saanich) , Open Burning Permit  (North Saanich), Tree Cutting and Removal Permit (North Saanich) , Soil Removal and Fill Permit (North Saanich, Saanich) , Municipal Road Allowance or Right of Way Permit (Sidney) , Sign Permit (Sidney, North Saanich, Saanich, Victoria) , Building Permit (Colwood, Victoria, North Saanich, Sidney) ,Demolition Permit (Colwood, Vicoria, Sidney) , Development Permit (Colwood, Victoria, Saanich, North Saanich, Sidney) , Highway Use Permit (Colwood) , Soil Removal Permit (Colwood) and Business License (Sooke, Colwood, Victoria, North Saanich, View Royal, Sidney).
Provincial or Territorial Permits (21)
Water Licence , Waste Discharge Permit , Burn Reference Number , Commercial Vehicle Licence , Electrical Installation Permit , Encroachment Permit , Free Use Permit , Heritage Conservation Act Alteration Permit , Lease , Licence of Occupation , Licence to Cut , Private Timber Mark Permit , Setback Permit , Soil Removal Permit , Hay Cutting Licence , Grazing Licence , Harvest Oysters from Vacant Crown Foreshore , Investigative Permit and Park Use Permit.
Federal Permits (11)
Business Registration , Canada Customs Coding Form , Canada Customs Invoice , Migratory Birds Regulations Permits , Lease or purchase Crown Land , Temporary Foreign Workers Permit , Temporary Resident Visa , Variety Registration , New Substances Notification: Organisms , Fertilizer or Supplement Registration and Import Declaration.
Regional authorities:
The BC agricultural plan
BC Farm employment standards act
Sustainable agriculture
Urban agriculture
Central Saanich
Regulations or best practices by type
Water: streams, watersheds, wells, groundwater
Land: soil, fertilizers
Air: emissions?
Zoning, building permits
Organics: approved nutrients and practices
Regulations or best practices by agency
BC farm practices
Local business assn
Farm related assn by region, type of crop or farming process
BC agriculture assn
BC regenerative agriculture assn (organics)

2.5  Products & services
The primary product is a comprehensive inventory of edible plants for our bio-region from which seeds and cuttings can be used for propagation and then installation for the sale of edible landscapes.  Everything Edible will design, install and maintain, nut and fruit trees, berry and fruit bushes, vines, canes and aquatic plants, herbs, vegetables, animals, compost systems, trellises, paths, ponds, irrigation, tool sheds sitting areas and fences.  Everything Edible will sell scale drawings for planning and record keeping, custom calendars for crop rotation, sowing, maintenance and harvest and workshops, and professional training and mentoring in all of the above.

2.6  Pricing and distribution
Currently prices have been very low from $10/hr in 2004 and have risen to $18.50/hr,up to $24/hr.  This is due to the learning that is still happening and as experience builds I expect wages will meet and exceed those earned by conventional landscapers, $35 to $54/hr.  Wages will vary with experience and demand.  Plant and seed prices will reflect market value.  (the future and contract work.) [perhaps list pricing and distribution (volume) by service/product. If not here, then in the details section] When you say details section, do you mean the financial appendix? [Yes. You can provide this overview here, then more details in an appendix. If the topic justifies it, you can provide the overview in the executive summary, and elaborate on the details in this section. The idea is to tell your story and show enough detail to support your business plan, but if someone might say “Where did you get that idea from, or How can you prove that?” then you might provide that extra detail in the appendix so it does not clutter up the flow of the general plan. ---Dan]

2.7  Market trends
There has been a 60% increase in farm production of certified organic foods.  “Sales of certified organic products accounted for less than 1% of the $46.5 billion Canadians spent in national grocery stores in 2006”15.  This market is growing, and there is a lot of room for growth.  In my personal experience the biggest problem with certified organic foods are the higher prices.  This motivates people to grow their own foods.  While our economy is in recession, food expenditures are not likely to go down as much as, conveniences and luxuries.(look for newer stats)
2.8  Implications or risk factors
There are a lot of nurseries in the CRD (see appendix: Nurseries) and this means that there may be no need for another nursery if they start shifting towards edible plant varieties.  Weather has a large effect on plants and some plants will die if not protected.  The most common problems are over saturation in winter and frost damage.  Climate change affects weather in unpredictable ways and can cause plants to go through growth stages at unpredictable times.  Climate change can cause problems like poor pollination which leads to poor fruit production or even death.  Economic variations like a recession could cause people to spend less on landscaping altogether as it is a luxury.  The organic trend could  drop off and people may cease to value or believe in the importance of local organic foods.  If income levels drop and people feel a need to choose between paying rent and paying for healthy food they will choose the former.  Alternatively, demand for these services could be much more than I could possibly cater too.  Fuel prices may rise drastically and this would cause and increase in operating expenses for the installation of  landscapes that required the moving of soils or large volumes of lumber or other building materials.
2.9  Planned Response
Everything Edible landscaping relies on an “organic” business model by growing a diversity of plants and having a diversity of clients.  We are ensuring certain successes in most areas and resilience against inevitable failure in others.  By staying up to date with education and information about everything edible we strive to be the best and therefore produce positive results.  If demand is to high hired help will be critical and in the event that demand still exceeds the ability of my company I will be happy to give employees the business skills they need to branch off and start their own companies or train existing landscaping companies in everything edible so that they can tap into the market.  With a good network of connections (see Network section #6.2 in appendix) I am confident that I will be able to find competent help.
2.10  Competitive Businesses
A Google search in 2011 of the top 100 results from “edible landscaping” returns 79% informational, 14% offering design services, 10% offering installation services, 9% workshops,  7% offering seed and plant sales, 5% offering consultations, 4% offering maintenance and 3% offering other stuff like tools and edible landscapes for pet turtles.
In Victoria, there were 2 informational sites and 3 offering services with none offering plant sales or workshops.  On Vancouver Island there were 4 informational sites, 5 offering services, 0 offering plants sales and 1 offering workshops.  This is evidence that here in the CRD we need a nursery for edible landscaping.
How do I find out where the money is made and it's level of maturity.(Early growth. Latter growth. Maturation, decline?[ Good questions...the best would be to make some visits over coffee, or phone calls and interview them...not too big a list so would be manageable, and then you'd have a current and accurate picture...assuming they will tell you the truth. You could tell them you are writing an article, which you can do, or need to give them some type of value, such as a summary report so they can see where they are in the market. Be clear what is confidential and what is public info. You could also interview some of their clients. There might be some CRD or Stats Canada stats, or other surveys done in this area.---Dan])
Questionnaire for other Edible Landscapers:
Question #1:  Is the edible landscaping industry in a state of:
1) early growth
2) latter growth
3) maturation
4) decline
Question #2:  From where do you get most of your revenue:
1) Consultation
2) Design
3) Installations
4) Maintenance

100% focus on edibles
Has demonstration edible landscape or nursery
Offers perennials.
Will design, install and maintain landscapes.
2nd Nature Landscaping
Earth First Edible Landscaping
Garden City
Mowing Around
Ceres edible landscaping (Duncan)
City Harvest CO-OP
Grocery stores and farm markets
Geoff Johnson
Other plant nurseries
Everything Edible

2.11  Competitive advantage
Everything Edible offers an expertise that is focused 100% on plants that are food producing.  This makes a more focused knowledge base so that we can expect a more comprehensive approach to the edible landscape.
By having a nursery as part of the business designs can be more easily catered to the plants that are most readily available saving travel time and wholesale or retail nursery costs.
2.12  Action Plan
-(Summer 2011)- Create business plan for land access arrangement.
-(Summer/Fall/Winter 2011)- Create ideal site design.
-(Summer/Fall/Winter 2011)- Create portfolio of design ideas and  working contracts.
-(Spring 2012)- Use business plan to secure suitable demonstration and nursery site. (see “Site Requirements” below)
-(Spring 2012)- Purchase truck.
-(Spring 2012)- Distribute promotional materials and contact help/labour.
-(Spring 2012)- Close deals and get contracts.
-(Spring 2012 ...)- Complete contract agreements while training help/labour.
-(Spring 2012 ...)- Use profits to improve demonstration site, train more help and create business plan for school.
3  Sales & Marketing Plan

3.1  Marketing niche (Customer)
The ideal customer is passionate about environmental and health issues that can be improved with well planned and maintained edible landscapes.  They can afford at least $90 to get some help producing a healthy edible landscape.  They are open to the greater community and like to encourage young people to get out and become more connected with the land.
3.1.1  Customer Case History
Most clients have been private and most of my time.

3.2  Advertising & promotion
Word of mouth will get around because:  Door to door canvasing will create a face to face relationship and educate the community about healthy food and watersheds as well as leave behind business cards with a website address.  Posters at stands that offer local, organic foods and gardening supplies will reach a large specific target audience.  A press release in the Times colonist, Peninsula Review and Monday Magazine will reach a larger, broader audience.  Silk screened, second hand work shirts and vehicle signage will show people what we it looks like in action.
3.3  Pricing & distribution
Past pricing has been hourly from $10 to $18.50 plus materials.  Hourly wages will vary based on a clients expendable income and ability to grant land access to Everything Edible for hosting workshops involving students, and other community members as well as cultivation, harvest and propagation of plants.  For instance, if a client is willing to grant 100% land access to Everything Edible the installation and maintenance will be free.  If the client wishes not to grant access to the land, Everything Edible will charge accordingly to raise the funds necessary for land access somewhere else, either in the form of a mortgage or lease payments.
The above wages reflect costs of living without long term land access.
Wages for services will be affected by the costs of long term land access to two acres.
Below are 7 different possible scenarios based on the cost of land access and rent.  Living expenses have been set at $450 per month as this reflects what I have been spending on average for the last 3 years.  The services offered will be delivered by myself and trained or apprenticing staff as well as (if clients permit) volunteers and community groups under supervision.

(how much$?  How to get product to client?) [if manufacturing, this would include shipping and will you get clients to products or products/services to clients...costs? Consider listing by service and product, group as relevant]  I don't think that this is manufacturing, is it?  I don't understand how to list by service or product and group.  How does this differ from section 2.5? (Products and services)?[ I was using mfg as an example. In some ways you are manufacturing because you start with seeds, cuttings and soil, add water and nutrrients (raw materials), conduct agricultural practices (production) and end up with plants (products). Section 2.5 describes your products and services, this section details how you deliver them or how the client gets them, for example see table below---Dan]

Distribution by products and services:
Being close to public transit will enable customers to come for workshops, plant sales and to pick up final landscape designs.  Consultations, canvasing, design and some  maintenance will be done by foot and public transit.  Installations and maintenance requiring heavy tools will be done using a truck.
Customer Pickup
Deliver to customer site
Nursery plants




3.4  Customer service policy
Provide quotes in advance for all work done.  Work with the needs of the client while applying my expertise  where necessary.  Listen, make suggestions, choose a course of action and perform in a safe healthy way.  Guaranty plants installed with irrigation and a regular maintenance plan for their first 3 years.  (how to deal with challenges)
4  Operations
The nursery site will provide for a demonstration of everything that we can grow to eat in this bio-region and the propagation of those plants so that they can be sold directly from the site or indirectly through landscape installation contracts.  Visitors and clients will come to bring home ideas and plants and professional as well as casual help.  Clients' sites that have been allowed unrestricted access will also be used as an extension of the nursery site.
Tools and vehicles will be kept at the nursery.
When travel is necessary we'll use, in order of priority, foot, bicycle, bus, carpool, truck, truck and trailer.
The weekly schedule will remain consistent and daily work hours will vary to ensure that work days are limited to 8 hours and time is made for all operations.
In order to reduce travel to and from the nursery and the job site, in the event that a job will take several working days, with permission from the client, we may use a camper trailer to live at the job site until completion.  This will require prior arrangements to ensure that nursery operations are taken care of.
Irrigation will be on timers when they can be afforded financially, weeding will be mechanical and with mulching and other organic practices.
Pruning and other cultivation required for maintenance and harvesting off site will be scheduled on a yearly calendar shared by the clients and Everything Edible.  It will be the responsibility of the party who can not meet the schedule to reschedule.
Invoicing will be by paper, delivered at the job site, by e-mail or by post.
Morning harvests, cultivation and propagation will take place at the nursery as well as on established client sites.
Afternoon installations, consultations and maintenance will take place at the nursery as well as on established client sites.
Evening neighborhood canvasing will serve to educate the community about local food and water sheds while collecting donations and selling consultation, design, installations, maintenance services and workshops.

 [how about day to day operations, irrigation, weeding, pruning, greenhouse, propagation, # of employees, other agricultural and business processes...invoicing, etc]I'm confused about how  to answer this, have I missed anything and is anything that I've written redundant?  We will use irrigation, a green house and we will cultivate plants.  The piece about number of employees is answered later on in 4.7.2.  Should it also be stated here as well?[ Operations refers to what the employees do, describing the flow of work, types of tasks. The employee section says who is doing which roles. I think you have given a good summary here. Similar info from a different angle---Dan]
4.1  Location
-within eye sight of heavy traffic area like public transit routes for exposure of demonstration landscape.
-71% of People with University Level Degrees live in Saanich, Victoria or Oak Bay.
4.1.1  Size and capacity
-two acres of arable land with uncontaminated soils suitable for agriculture.  Adequate sun exposure, maximum slope of 50% with sun and 14% on north facing areas.  Flood lands are only acceptable if they can be modified by creating mounds that stay dry all year.
-with access to road and pond, creek, rain water, cistern or city water.
-housing or 900 sq' space to park trailer and to build a house.  Within 1 km.
4.1.2  Advantages or disadvantages
Being close to clients and in the public eye will be very advantageous and will spark a trend that could create a very big and far reaching ripple effect.  The ability to invite friends, family and guests for socialization and work parties and to invite clients for workshops and classes will be invaluable in setting up the demonstration site.
4.1.3  Lease or ownership detail
Long term lease, for sale, rent to own, work-trade, land co-op, stewardship agreement, TLC aquisition.
4.2  Equipment, supplies and materials
For Plant Suppliers list, Irrigation and tools, Landscaping materials, see appendix.
Tools have all been purchased used except pruners, magnetic compass and measuring tape.  Today they include a bicycle and cart, hand operated gardening, maintenance and repair tools, 110V AC electric hand tools and drafting tools including drafting table and computer.  Future purchases will most likely include replacements and an automobile and street legal trailer.
4.3  Research & Development
LANdpLAN is a research system that I am creating to keep track of information that I have found through local foods potlucks and participation in gardening clubs, organizations and list serves and books.  R&D efforts using books have been in the field of first nations traditional knowledge, organic agriculture and permaculture (See resources in appendix).  Observation and relations with other edible landscapers like Linnaea farm on Cortes Island, the Bullocks brothers on Orcas Island, Jason Greenwood and OUR eco Village in Duncan have offered great new ideas and proven methods.  Other research and development has come from courses with Gaia College, the Greater Victoria Compost Education Center and the Horticultural Center of the pacific.  In the future it is my intention to create a school for edible Landscaping on-site to further R&D.
How can we create enough edible perennial landscapes to feed everyone in the event that everyone has a will to eat locally.  Initial research has looked at what can grow here and where is it growing, and how is it cultivated.  Further research would improve current findings and make them open source.  [specify type of research or areas of study, what type of challenges will you be trying to solve, or what is the science, technology you are trying to aadvance? e.g. how can we grow ___ to feed ___ . Mention that you will position your research program to take advantage of the SR&ED tax credit which returns 41.5% of R&D expenditures if projects are deemed eligible. ]
4.4  environmental compliance
Everything Edible improves the environment by increasing the number of trees in our landscapes and makes food more locally available.  Abstaining from the use of chemical fertilizers, and pesticides which have been proven to damage the environment also helps. Consciousness about applying fertilizers in a way that they stay in the root zone of the plants without running off ensures watersheds remain healthier for fish and streams.  The use of perennials ensures a healthier soil food web. [summarize regulations and bylaws that apply...from exec summary]
4.5  Additional information
Everything edible also practices bio-engineering which is the creation of large physical structures like soil retaining walls, screens and bank stabilization from living plants that will grow and appreciate in value with time as opposed to inert materials which deteriorate with time.
4.6  Key roles [include job tasks of employees and volunteers]
Jonathan Francoeur
Book keeping, design, quotes.
Accountability, design and math.
Personal skills, knowledge of services and plants, optimism, persistence and motivation.
Consultation, instruction and maintenance.
Personal skills, knowledge of plants, human nutrition, permaculture design, teaching skills and responsibility.
Personal skills, landscaping experience and self care.

4.6.1  Additional information
More business will lead to more edible landscapers.  It is desirable that once trained in all of the facets of edible landscaping, employees will leave and become employers to create a resilient network of small, locally owned edible landscaping companies.
4.7  Policies & Procedures

4.7.1  Hours of operations
Hours of operation will vary with the seasons and the work load.  The goal is to work part time up to 20 hours per week off site (with clients) and 20 hours per week on site with the nursery and demonstration site for a typical 40 hour work week.  Most likely more hours off site will me worked in the warm months and more time on site the rest if the year.
4.7.2  Number of employees
Dependant on number of clients, between 0 and 12. [make a table of how many you will need at each level of production]
4.7.3  Vacation program
Most likely vacations will take place mostly during the winter months and during the lull in July that normally happens when things have been weeded and irrigation is taking care of plant water needs. [good, taking advantage of the natural down time so it does not impact productivity]
4.7.4  Performance assessment
Performance assessment will be done quarterly with a questionnaire sent out to clients on the first new moon after the Solstices and Equinoxes. Productivity and quality are our two main criteria and responses will be reviewed during the second New Moon after the Solstices and Equinoxes.  (See appendix for questionaire) [you might explain a bit about why /how those dates are significant for the growing/working seasons]
4.7.5  Training and development
Training has been on the job, at various workshops in and around the Victoria Capital Regional District and at Linnaea farm, The Horticultural center of the Pacific and Camosun College and Gaia College. (see appendix for resume).  Employee training will be on the job) [summarize curriculum topics or learning outcomes]
4.7.6  Remuneration and benefits
The original vision of “The Army of Farmers” is aimed at creating long term security by setting up a resilient food system and healthy, well paying jobs.  Employees being paid a wage equal to those offered by the Canadian armed forces will ensure short term financial security for all employees until retirement when longterm security will come from the next generation and the established edible landscapes.
Example of wages from the Canadian Armed Forces as of March 2008:  Private level 1 [$2585 monthly], Chief Warrant Officer level 4 [$7897 monthly].  With 50% of wages after retirement, up to 70% after 25 years.
Guidelines for succession will be created once the nursery has been established. [can you describe some of the succession criteria or considerations?]
(Create clear guidelines for succession)
4.8  Additional information
The purpose of this model is to create a resilient food system, jobs and a stronger local economy that will grow and create food security and redundancy in case of failure of our current high travel, petrochemical reliant food system.

5  Financial Plan

Financial Appendix
6  Appendix
6.1  Nurseries
Arbutus Grove Nursery Ltd, Art Knapp Victoria Garden Centre, Brentwood Bay Nurseries Ltd, C & C Growers, Cannor Nursery, Dinter Nursery, Elk Lake Garden Centre Ltd., Firwood Rhododendron Nursery, Fruit Trees and more, GardenWorks, Hilltop Greenhouses Ltd, Horizon Nurseries & Landscaping, Island View Nursery, Jeff Johnson, Le Coteau Farms, Little Elf Garden Centre, Lochside Nursery, Marigold Nurseries, Meadow Oak Nursery, Numa Farms Nursery Grower, Peninsula Flowers Nursery, Pride of Place Plant, Queenswood Nursery of Victoria 2003 Ltd, Russell Nursery, Scent-Sational Plants, The Big Barn Garden Center, Vet's Plant Box.
6.2  Competitors/ Allies

Local businesses:
2nd Nature Landscaping
(250) 382-3552
Earth First Edible Landscaping

Garden City Tree & Landscape
250 516 7274
Mowing Around

(250) 590-5808
Ceres edible landscaping (Duncan)
City Harvest CO-OP
Grocery stores and farm markets

Geoff Johnson

(250) 595-6465
Other plant nurseries
See appendix

6.3  Network
Contacts in the CRD
Instructors:  Stephan Cranz (practical skills in landscape Horticulture), Course in Organic Certification (Tina Fraser and Marry-Allice Johnson),
Employers:  O.U.R. Eco Village, Andre Chabot (Landscaper and arborist), Madrona Farm (David Chambers),
Friends:  Alestair Bryson (farmer and Coucil member of Central Saanich), Jeff Johnson (permaculture educator), Firefly Vineyard (Carole Wallace), my partner who is a Herbalist, and some friends in Victoria who are doing landscaping with some interest in edibles: Jason, Philipa, Cameron, Dan, Michael, Kat, Selina, Dean Rebbeneras, .  Class mates from the Landscape Horticulture course Arianne, Dean, Janina, Sandy Kelly, Julie R, Julie S, Kirsten, Rahel, Roger, Benjamin, Isank. Kim, Grahm.  Hoke (harvest Woods Garden Steward at HCP and Shannon Birch (mycology and ministry of forestry),  Tom Lee (mechanic), Bill Metcalf (jack of all mechanical trades),  Billy Warren (landscaper/viticulturist), CEO O.U.R. Eco Village (Brandy Gallagher),  urban edible landscape stewards:Dannie Carsen, Director of Organic Islands Festival (Deborah Morse), Sweet Earth Farm (Ian King),
Aquaintances:  Jack Mar (Farmer and Mayor of Centreal Saanich), 2nd Nature Landscaping (Bobby), Ebibella Landscaping (Michael Cowan), Fiesty Field Farm (Robyn Tunniclif), Fruit Trees and More (Bob Duncan), Blackberry Spring Farm (Andiels), Saltspring Seeds (Dan Jason), The Roost Farm and Bakery (Hamish Crawford), North Brook Farm (Heather Stretch), Founder of Seedy Saturday (Sharon Remple),
Mentors:  Eisenhower farm (Dieter Eisenhower,
Memberships / groups / schools:  Society for Organic Urban Landcare, Gaia College, The Horticultural Center of the Pacific, Vancouver Island Mycological Society, Victoria Bee Keepers Association, Linnaea Farm,Saanich Organics,Life Cycles, Greater Victoria Compost Education Center, Community of Organic Growers, BC Fruit Testers Association,

6.4  Performance Questionnaire
Coming soon, see HCP practical skills.
6.5  Site Requirements
-two acres of arable land.
-with access to road and water.
-within 1km of market (urban area with average income over $50,000)
-within eye sight of heavy traffic area for exposure of demonstration landscape.
6.6  Resources

Everything Edible Library
A year on the Garden Path. A 52 week Organic Gardening Guide.
Better Vegetable Gardens the Chinese Way. Peter Chan's Raised-Bed System
Bird Gardening Book. The complete guide to creating a Bird-friendly habitat in your yard.
Ecological Gardening. Your path to a Healthy Garden.
Farmfresh. Your Local Guide to fresh produce.
Feasting free on wild edibles. More than 500 ways to banquet on Natures Bounty.
Fields of Plenty. A Farmer's Journey in Search of Real Food and the People who Grow it.
Food from Sunlight. Planetary guide for Hungry People.
Foraging for wild Mushrooms
Gaia's Garden. A guide to Home-Scale PERMACULTURE
Gardening Month by Month in British Columbia
Getting Fresh in and around Victoria. The guide to going organic.
Give peas a chance! Organic Gardening cartoon-science
Guide to Western Mushrooms
Harmonic Farming. A love style
Herbal Tea Gardens. 22 Plants for your Enjoyment and Well Being.
How to Grow a Complete Diet in Less Than 1000 Square Feet.
How to grow more vegetables than you could ever imagine on less space than you ever thought possible.
Irrigation System Design. HUNTER Student Work Book
Liquid Gold. The lore and logic of Using Urine to Grow Plants
Native trees of Canada
Organic Farming as Business. Student manual. Hort 577v
Permaculture. A designers' Manual.
Plants of Coastal British Columbia
Rodale's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Gardening and Landscaping Techniques.
Sustainable Development Strategy 2007-2009. Making Progress Together. Agriculture and Agrifood Canada.
Sustainable Gardening. The Oregon Washington Student Workbook
The Complete Book of Edible Landscaping
The Complete Farmer. A Compendium of Do-It-Yourself, Tried and True Practices for the Farm, Garden & Household.
The Encyclopedia of Natural Insect & Disease Control
The Farm Management Handbook
The Humanure Handbook. A guide to Composting Human Manure 2nd Edition.
The Mushroom Cultivator. A practical Guide to Growing Mushrooms at home.
The Neighborhood Forager. A guide for the wild food Gourmet.
The secret life of plants
The Self Sufficient Life and how to live it. The complete back to basics guide.
The Zero-Mile diet. A year-round guide to Growing Organic Food.
Working With Nature, Shifting Paradigms. The Science And Practice Of Organic Horticulture. Gaia College

Online Bookmarks

Edible Landscaping Industry
Green industry booming in Canada - landscape british Green for Life
Cowichan Agricultural Society
Canadian Food Inspection Agency - Table of Contents
Provides access to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's website
Traditional Plant Foods of canadian indigenous peoples, Nutrition, Botany and Use
Permits for EE in Saanich
Greywater in the garden : Permaship : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive
A simple,effective and low budget greywater design
information databases
Matchmaker mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest
HyperSQL User Guide
Canadian Nutrient File (CNF), 2010: Download Files
Provides access and instructions for downloading electronic files
Plant databases
Plants For A Future : 7000 Edible, Medicinal & Useful Plants
7000 rare and unusual plants with edible, medicinal or other uses. We place emphasis on creating an ecologically sustainable environment with perennial plants.
Michigan State University Plant Encyclopedia. Jesse Saylor's Plants
Michigan State University's Department of Horticulture Plant Encyclopedia provides plant information and plant images for the mid-west United States.
Advanced Search | USDA PLANTS
Perform an specific advanced search of the PLANTS Database
Searching PlantFiles
E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia
E-Flora BC provides information on the biogeography and identification of the plants, lichens, fungi and algal species of British Columbia. Atlas pages include interactive map, photographs, taxonomic descriptions and links to outside sites.
UBC Herbarium - Beaty Biodiversity Museum - University of British Columbia
Encyclopedia of Life
Morus nigra L. (Black mulberry) in Encyclopedia of Life
Native Plant Database
Enterprise Budgets: Planning for Profit - British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture
Fruit & Nut Information - Fruit and Nut Research & Information Center
plants adapted to Mediterranean climates
gardening in Mediterranean climates worldwide -
BBC - Gardening: Plant Finder
Look up detailed information about thousands of plants using our searchable database. You will find descriptions of the plants and tips about growing them.
NPIN: Native Plant Database
Missouri Botanical Garden
A Modern Herbal - Common Name - Index
A Modern Herbal - Common Name - Index
Victoria Foragers
BC Fruit Testers Association
Other info sources
Nut culture in British Columbia
Heritage Plants Database - Seeds of Diversity Canada - Historic Seed Catalogue - David Gellatly, Nuts for Home and Market, Descriptive Price List of Selected Hardy Nut Trees 1952
Luscious Landscape Plants
Incorporate fruiting trees, shrubs and vines into your yard and you’ll enjoy the double benefits of a gorgeous landscape and luscious edible treats. To determine the best plants for your site, you’ll want to consider several factors, including your desired yield and ornamental qualities, along with your particular location’s available pollination (some plants need other plants nearby for pollination) and hardiness zone. Here’s a detailed guide to help you choose the right plants for your yard.

6.7  Resume
Resume: Jonathan Francoeur

employment/Cowichan Green Community Cowichan Valley. November '10 to March '11
Coordination of the "Edible WInter Wonderlands" project in colaboration with Ceres Edible Landscaping. Worked on building 6 gardens in the James Alexander Neighborhood of Duncan.
1) Caulfield Place: 7 raised beds. 4 were 3' high, others 2'.
2) Warmlands 800 squarefoot Madala garden, compost management and fill for paths and.
3) Sports Plex plated 4 hazels, 12 goose berries, 20 blue berries, mahonia, 2 apples, 2 pears and guilds.
4) Private: 300 sq' sheet mulch, 4 raised beds, 6 berrie bushes and 3 trees.
5) M'kola housing hazelnut prunning of 16 mature trees and fertilisation.
6) Alexander School 3000 sq' sheet mulch and planting of 5 fruit trees and 30 shrubs/canes/vines.
John Milne (Project Manager)

work/trade/Peace of Paradise Cowichan Valley. September 13 '10 to April 13 '11
380 square meters under vegetabl cultivation. Built raised beds, weeding, mulching, initiation of compost tea production and humanure composting, planted 5 Hazels, 2 Chestnuts, 2 Walnuts, transplanted raspberries, fencing, feeding system for chickens etc... permaculture innovations.

work/trade/WWOOFing 5 hosts in the Cowichan Valley. June '10 to September '10
Within the 30 hours per week commited to work for my hosts cared for and harvested annuals, perrennials, chickens, sheep, turkeys, installed a pond linner, repair/upgrade animal shelters and fences. I used spare time to write a Business Overview, Sales & Marketing, Operating, Human Resources, Action Plan and Executive Summary for a business in Edible Landscaping.
2010 Wwoof hosts: Lynn at Mossybanks Farm. 250 597 7300,
Ita at Glenora Farm. 250 715 1559,
Karla at Herb Wise Farm. 250 656 1058,
Kari and Massimo at Lila Music farm. 250 701 0978,
Phyllis and Rudy at White Gaste Farm. 250 743 5358 or 732 6543

education/ Gai College Bi-weekly at OUR ecovillage June '10-until July 28 '10
Organic Master Gardener program.

volunteer/ OUR eco village community association 20hrs/week Oct '09-March-'10
employment/ OUR eco village community association 40hrs/week April-May-'10
0.8 acres in raised beds under cultivation for vegetables. Care of newly planted perrenials on 25 acre propery. Volunteer co-ordination.

employment/ OUR eco vilage JCP 20 hours/week Oct '09-April '10
Worked with team of 8 in edible landscaping. Created scale maps and planted over 100 perrennials), drystack stone wall 1.3m tall and 25m long, labyrinth, pond re-cealing with bentonite clay, grey water filtration system for communal kitchen used by 20 full time residents, 180 meters of deer fencing, 300 square meters of terraces for berries.

Work Trade/ Farm sitting Black Berry Spring Farm February '09 to Oct '09
165 square meters initially were expanded to 470 square meters of vegetable production including a 180 square meter green house. Cared for 12 goats, 60 chickens, 2 cows and 10 ducks on the 2.5 acre property.

Volunteer/ Glendale Gardens (fomerly called The Horticultural Center of the Pacific) February '09 to Oct '09
Weekly management of mandala shaped herb garden with over 150 different medicinal culinary and useful herbs.

education/ Linnaea Farm Feb-Oct '08
Ecological Gardening Program.
2.5 acres of vegetable production and 12 acres of cattle pasture for 35 Weekly CSA boxes and weekend markets. Comunal living (10 students). Weekly theory classes with assigned readings (4 hours), independent garden plots (6 hours) , Permaculture design class (8 hours), and herbology, food preservation, blacksmithing and other farm related skills (4 hours). We had cows, sheep, pigs, horses and chickens on the farm. On weekends I sold home made Essene bread and worked for a private client in her food garden.

volunteer/ Lifecycles Sept 2006-Aug '07
Growing Schools program. Agricultural lessons with children in elementary schools.

employment/ Madrona Farms Full-time May-Sept '07
25 acress under cultivation for vegetables. Hoed, hand-weeded and transplanted, and harvested on 10 acres. Sold at stand.

apprenticeship/Soil (Stewards Of Irreplaceable Land) Apprenticeship Jan-Sept '07
Deiter Eizenhower Farms- Harvested and sold salad mix with other vegetables on a weekly basis.

volunteer/ Greater Victoria Compost Education Center Jan '06-Sept '07
Taught about composting with the Outreach table which we set up at community events.
Assisted teaching children about composting in indoor and outdoor settings.

volunteer/ Greater Victoria Compost Education Center Feb '06
3 day intensive Compost Educator's Program. Taught and gave the ability to instruct various methods of composting; including: Hot-heat composts, worm bins, trenching, 3 bin system and house-hold composting.

education/ Horticultural Center of the Pacific Feb-Oct '06
Landscape Horticulture Certificate Program (10 months full time)

employment/ Chabot Landscape & Tree services May-Oct '05
Installed, maintained and cleaned up residential and commercial landscapes. Pruned, removed and planted trees and shrubs.

apprenticeship/ Hegnstrup Organic Farm (Denmark) Aug-Oct '04
Worked with harvest of fall vegetables, pigs, cows and chickens

References by phone:
Jason and Cristy at Peace of Paradise Farm. 250 737 1800
David Chambers at Madrona Farm. 250 477 3093
See Wwoof hosts.

6.8  Income and Expenses since startup

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